They believed the Middle Kingdom, the old name for China, literally meaning the centre of the world, was the highest form of civilisation. So why step outside into ever darkening shades of barbarianism? The seven great voyages of Zheng He between and around the East and South China Seas and across the Indian Ocean as far as East Africa left no permanent mark - they were about demonstrating the glory of the Middle Kingdom rather than a desire to conquer. Those who left China to settle in South East Asia were seen as leaving civilisation and deserving of no support or protection by the Emperor.
Compare that with the way in which Britain and France celebrated the heroes of their colonial expansion. Our cities are littered with statues and street names in their memory. There is another reason why the Chinese have tended to stay at home. The country is huge, diverse - and extremely difficult to govern. The overwhelming preoccupation of its rulers down the ages has been how to maintain order and stability and thereby retain power. It remains just as true today.
China's Rise to Global Economic Superpower
Rather than look outwards, China's leaders look inwards. The exception was China's own continental land mass. Its expansion, rather than to the four corners of the world, was confined to its own continent.
The most dramatic example was the westward march of the Qing dynasty from the midth Century which, in a series of bloody and brutal wars, doubled the physical size of China. So what, you might ask, does all this history tell us about how China might behave as a great global power?
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A great deal. Europe, I would argue, has historically been an extremely aggressive and expansionist continent. Its own history has been characterised by seemingly endless wars which were then transplanted onto a global stage during the era of colonial expansion and world war. Military might, the projection of power around the world, and the desire if necessary by force to impose our way of life on others, have been fundamental to the European story.
And it is not difficult to see how the US - itself the product of European overseas expansion and settlement - inherited these characteristics from us. China won't be like this. It is not in its DNA. Its rulers will be far less interested in seeking to dominate the rest of the world and far more concerned with keeping themselves in power. That is what ruling a country containing a fifth of the world's population obliges. When Xi Jinping becomes Chinese leader next month, his in-tray, as with Hu Jintao before him, will be overwhelmingly filled with domestic rather than foreign issues.
In time China will certainly come to enjoy huge global power.
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It will be exercised, however, in a rather different way. The iconic form of western power has been military. Extraordinarily, the US today accounts for around half of global defence expenditure. Before, European colonial expansion was only possible because its fighting capacity was massively superior to that of the rest of the world. They both had a important role in the development of the world. The Cold War impacted society and politics more so than WWII by aiding countries in hopes of making them join their regime, the use of propaganda techniques to portray the other superpower as weak, the fear of annihilation due to nuclear weapons, and the war between communism and democracy.
Soon, however, America stepped in and helped. Others, however, see this as an opportunity to exploit new markets and to further world unity.
China: How science made a superpower
This paper will examine the reality of the potential threats and the extent of the opportunities. It currently tops the United States when it comes to reserves, economy and the job market. S wields. There is no other nation that comes close to being recognized as hegemony. Looking through history, economic powers and impact of nuclear. For the rest of the century and the first part of the next century China was not a major power in the East Asian region. In the twentieth century it have changed.
Nowadays we hear a lot about China as a superpower. But is China really a superpower or is it slowly becoming one? What is a superpower? The term superpower is used very. Prithvi and Agni missiles are inducted into the armed forces and form the basis of Indian nuclear second strike capability. Trishul missile is declared a technology demonstrator.
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While Nag and Helina missiles are undergoing user trials. Recently, a new weapons system, the beyond visual range air-to-air Astra missile was added to the project. Also India has fielded many modern missiles like the anti ballistic missiles like the AAD and PAD along with submarine launched ballistic missiles for its Arihant class of nuclear ballistic submarines. The expertise in developing these missiles has helped Indian scientists to contribute to joint weapon development programs like the Brahmos and Barak-II.
India is also developing long range cruise missiles similar to the Tomahawk class of missiles called Nirbhay. There are reports of India developing an intercontinental ballistic missile beyond the range of ten thousand kilometers. India has possessed nuclear weapons since , when it did the Pokharan I nuclear tests, and the means to deliver them over long distances.
The Indian Armed Forces plays a crucial role in anti-terrorist activities and maintaining law and order in the disputed Kashmir region. India has also participated in several United Nations peace-keeping missions, currently being the largest contributor to UN peace keeping force and is the second-largest contributor to the United Nations Democracy Fund behind the USA.
India is one of two ancient civilizations, dating back to at least 5, years, which have stood the test of time and survived against all odds. Indians invented the numbering system introduced into the West by Arabic mathematicians, Arabic numerals , the concept of zero, logic , geometry, basic algebra, calculus, probability, astronomy etc. Indian culture has spread to foreign lands through wandering traders, philosophers, migration and not through conquest. India conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries without ever having to send a single soldier across her border.
India's film industry produces more feature films than any other. Indian cinema transcended its boundaries from the days of film Awara, a great hit in Russia. Bollywood films are seen in central and west Asia. India has a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual and multi-religious society living together. The subcontinent's long and diverse history has given it a unique eclectic culture.
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It is often associated with spirituality. Thanks to its history of both indigenous and foreign influences - like the ancient Indian religions Buddhism , Hinduism , Jainism and Sikhism and the ancient Middle East Asian schools of thought Abrahamic - Islam , Christianity , Judaism etc. Since Independence, India has regained its more progressive schools of thought, like - democracy , secularism , rule of law, esteem for human rights , rational deductive reasoning, development of Science and Technology , etc. India's diversity forces it to evolve strong foundations of tolerance and pluralism, or face breakup.
The Indian public is now also accepting modern western influences in their society and media - and what is emerging is a confluence of its past local culture with the new western culture "Social Globalisation". Democratic republicanism has its value, more so in a multi-ethnic country like India. However, India is relatively a much younger republic when compared to other major democracies.
China's Emergence As A Superpower Essay -- Economics
Moreover, it is predicted that in the long run, India being a democracy will provide it an edge over non-democratic [ citation needed ] competitors like China. India has had significant successes with quelling many insurgencies, most prominently the Punjab insurgency Khalistan and the surrender of large sections of insurgent outfits like the United Liberation Front of Asom in and National Liberation Front of Tripura in However the Indian government has acknowledged that there has been a dramatic increase in support for the Maoists Naxalite insurgency in the last decade.
The boom in support appears to have been also boosted by the successes of the nearly year-old Maoist rebellion in Nepal. The maoist insurgency exploits the poor by forced conscription. India's government has recently taken a new stance on the Maoist insurgency, pulling the affected states together to coordinate their response.