SORT: reorders the selected messages chronologically by date of composition. TYPE: shows the selected messages, considering the variables only-type-headers, and dont -type -headers and sets the seen bit. Implementation of the Tutor A. It is written in C-Prolog, a Prolog interpreter written in C for 32 bit machines. The program uses code for means-ends analysis written by Prof. Rowe [Ref. Means-ends analysis tries to find a path from a starting state to a goal state, representing it by a sequence of operators. In our program, operators are the available commands in each mode.
To reach the goal states, recommended operators are specified and preconditions are specified for each operator. Also, deletepostconditions and addpostconditions are defined for each operators. Lists hold the sequence of operators to be issued to perform a given task. Lists also represent preconditions and postconditions for each operator, the starting state, and the goal state.
Structure of die program The program is divided into three modules. The tutor module implements various tutoring strategies. Problem Domain Module Student tasks are divided into two groups: basic and advanced. Basic tasks teach the concept of domain levels and single basic commands in each level. The commands we chose are a subset of the commands described in previous chapter: to teach answer, copy, delete, exit, expunge, flag, forward, headers all, headers answer, headers current, headers delete, 11 headers flag, headers unseen, help, jump, list, logout, move, next, previous, quit, read, send, type, undelete, and unflag.
Tutor Module The tutor issues tasks to the student and monitors the actions performed. Most of its code was written by Prof. It contains an inference engine for means-ends analysis, tutoring strategies, an interface, a help facility, and utilities.
Computer aided instruction thesis
The tutor issues a task, compares the student's answer with the correct command figured out by the inference module, and gives the student appropriate assistance and corrects any errors. The tutor interacts with the student via the interface module and provides help with the help facility module. Means- ends analysis requires clear definitions of the preconditions and postconditions for each operator.
In this case, the precondition can be expressed by: precondition cornmand mm,send ,[level mrn ] where the second argument is the precondition that the current level must be MM. After an operator has been applied, it must delete previous conditions which are no longer true and add new conditions that became true.
The recommended operator to reach a goal state is represented by: predicate "recommended" as in reconunended [leveI send ],command mm,send which can be read as "In order to reach the state where the current level is SEND, try to 12 issue a send command from the MM level. After issuing the task and receiving a command from the student, the tutor uses some of the teaching strategy rules in metutor9 module written by Prof.
Rowe to decide what actions to take according to the student's input, plus some code of my own.
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If the received command was invalid, the tutor checks for minor errors such as mistyping or transposition of characters in a command. It infers the correct command if it recognizes one difference in character string of the received command from a valid one, if by changing the positions of two adjacent characters in the string; then it will ask the student if it can correct the command. A subroutine called "niceread" has been written by Prof. Rowe to make input and output process a little easier.
The tutor will recognize input when the user hits the return key without an extra period. The student can also review the task by typing "task". For example, after a "send" command, it executes the action rule whose left hand side is action mm,send and performs the function of the command. It then enters the "To:" level and waits for the address of the receiver. MM allows the student to abbreviate a command by typing two or three 13 characters followed by an escape character, but it was hard to implement and was discarded from this module.
Instead, the exact commands were required to execute the system. We showed it was possible to provided an efficient working environment for a student to learn the usage of MM by issuing the commands and seeing results. Since the time was limited, only a part of MM was addressed. Since teaching TOPSMM isn't complex, a computer tutor can save much time and effort of a teacher as well as a student. The program didn't cover all of MM, but it demonstrated that artificial intelligence can be added to computer aided-instruction to provide a better system. It could correct typing errors and misconceptions in level, precondition violations, and other more subtle errors.
The program could be improved by providing a complete simulation of MM, and more tutoring strategies, and computer graphics.
your Online Programming Lessons and Tutorials
Kim Tutor: Nice to meet you, Kim. Tutor: We are now at the top level mode. Your fisrt exercise is to invoke the MV1. Internet MA- 20 6. Now, we are at the MA mode. You mean "headers current"?
X Task 12 Tutor: O. Since you have seen this message, the unseen flag will be removed. Tutor: Now, go back to the top level again. We came back to the TOP level. Now, lets browse all the headers of messages in the mail box. You can issue a "headers all" corrmand only in the "NM" level Try again. Internet NM 6. You mean "headers flag"? Now, set the flag on the message number Now, list all the headers of flagged messages again.
Now, lets browse the message number Tutor: Now, jump to the message number 7 in the mail box. Tu tor: Good. You mean "previous"? Tutor: Good. Now, send a message to? Internet Mvl 6. A,Int ,C. B ,C,D,E , fail. In t , message d,A,Int ,B,D. SN , sortl SN ,!. F , mes sage A. E , asser tz message A. L :- readbuf f L3. R :- reve rse2 L, [ ] ,R. Z ' Somebody ' Ge n. X 'Exercise 1'. Preopl ist. Prestate, [ [State, Go a 1 ] IStack] ,! Pre op list ,Prestate,Op,D. S t ack. Deletepost 1 i st , del e t e i t ems Deletepost 1 ist. MAL ,!
O :- recorrmended D. O , not precondition O. O :- reconmended D. O :- precondition O.
Project on the Effect of Computer Aided Instruction
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