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Contents Richardson Pest Solutions. The rate of photosynthesis increases linearly with increasing light intensity from point A to B on the graph.
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Q Hypothesis. Photosynthesis gcse coursework Course Hero. Its importance and factors gcse biology coursework osmosis controlling thesis theme the rate of plant photosynthesis Water concentration outside the cell. Yeast cells have a nucleus, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall. The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion. The cells of multicellular organisms may differentiate and become adapted for specific functions. Tissues are aggregations of similar cells; organs are aggregations of tissues performing specific physiological functions.
Organs are organised into organ systems, which work together to form organisms. During the development of a multicellular organism, cells differentiate so that they can perform different functions. Candidates should develop an understanding of size and scale in relation to cells, tissues, organs and organ systems. Examples of tissues include: muscular tissue, which can contract to bring about movement.
One organ may contain several tissues.
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The stomach is an organ that contains:. The digestive system is one example of a system in which humans and other mammals exchange substances with the environment. Candidates should be able to recognise the organs of the digestive system on a diagram. Green plants and algae use light energy to make their own food.
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They obtain the raw materials they need to make this food from the air and the soil. The conditions in which plants are grown can be changed to promote growth. Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding to: interpret data showing how factors affect the rate of photosynthesis. Candidates should be able to relate the principle of limiting factors to the economics of enhancing the following conditions in greenhouses: light intensity.
Plant cells use some of the glucose produced during photosynthesis for respiration. Living organisms form communities, and we need to understand the relationships within and between these communities. These relationships are affected by external influences. Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding to: suggest reasons for the distribution of living organisms in a particular habitat Additional guidance:. Proteins have many functions, both inside and outside the cells of living organisms.
Proteins, as enzymes, are now used widely in the home and in industry. These long chains are folded to produce a specific shape that enables other molecules to fit into the protein. Proteins act as:. Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding to: evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using enzymes in the home and in industry.
Biological catalysts are called enzymes. Enzymes are proteins. High temperatures change the shape. The digestive enzymes are produced by specialised cells in glands and in the lining of the gut.
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The enzymes then pass out of the cells into the gut where they come into contact with food molecules. They catalyse the breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules. This enzyme catalyses the breakdown of starch into sugars in the mouth and small intestine. These enzymes catalyse the breakdown of proteins into amino acids in the stomach and the small intestine. These enzymes catalyse the breakdown of lipids fats and oils into fatty acids and glycerol in the small intestine.
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The enzymes in the stomach work most effectively in these acid conditions. Bile neutralises the acid that was added to food in the stomach.
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This provides alkaline conditions in which enzymes in the small intestine work most effectively. These enzymes have many uses in the home and in industry. In the home:. However, most enzymes are denatured at high temperatures and many are costly to produce. Suggested ideas for practical work to develop skills and understanding include the following: design an investigation to find the optimum temperature for biological and non-biological washing powders to remove stains from cotton and other materials.
The concentration of both enzymes can be varied. Respiration in cells can take place aerobically or anaerobically. The energy released is used in a variety of ways. The human body needs to react to the increased demand for energy during exercise. Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding to: interpret the data relating to the effects of exercise on the human body.
The energy may be used:. Anaerobic respiration results in an oxygen debt that has to be repaid in order to oxidise lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water. One cause of muscle fatigue is the build-up of lactic acid in the muscles.
Blood flowing through the muscles removes the lactic acid. Suggested ideas for practical work to develop skills and understanding include the following: investigating the rate of respiration in yeast using carbon dioxide sensors and dataloggers.
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Simple genetic diagrams can be used to show this. There are ethical considerations in treating genetic disorders. Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding to: explain why Mendel proposed the idea of separately inherited factors and why the importance of this discovery was not recognised until after his death. Additional guidance: Candidates should be familiar with principles used by Mendel in investigating monohybrid inheritance in peas. They should understand that Mendels work preceded the work by other scientists which linked Mendels inherited factors with chromosomes.
HT only Foundation Tier candidates should be able to interpret genetic diagrams of monohybrid inheritance and sex inheritance but will not be expected to construct genetic diagrams or use the terms homozygous, heterozygous, phenotype or genotype. Body cells divide by mitosis. Throughout section 2.
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For Foundation Tier, knowledge of meiosis is restricted to where the process occurs and that gametes are produced by meiosis. A new individual then develops by this cell repeatedly dividing by mitosis. In mature animals, cell division is mainly restricted to repair and replacement. Candidates should understand that genetic diagrams are biological models which can be used to predict the outcomes of crosses. Subject Content. They contain the same alleles as the parents. In females the sex chromosomes are the same XX ; in males the sex chromosomes are different XY.
Each gene may have different forms called alleles. Candidates are not expected to know the names of the four bases or how complementary pairs of bases enable DNA replication to take place. This can be used to identify individuals in a process known as DNA fingerprinting. Attention is drawn to the potential sensitivity needed in teaching about inherited disorders. The parents may be carriers of the disorder without actually having the disorder themselves. It is caused by a recessive allele of a gene and can therefore be passed on by parents, neither of whom has the disorder.
Changes in the environment of plants and animals may cause them to die out. The fossil record shows that new organisms arise, flourish, and after a time become extinct. The record also shows changes that lead to the formation of new species. Candidates should use their skills, knowledge and understanding to: suggest reasons why scientists cannot be certain about how life began on Earth.
Fossils may be formed in various ways:.