Co-teaching in inclusive classrooms a metasynthesis of qualitative research

Across the hall, Ms.

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Lena is introducing a new learning activity to her class by using the class- room iPad. Another way to use the Monkey. Math app fosters turn-taking because,. Download PDF. Exceptional Children Vol. It was concluded that co-teachers generally supported co-teaching, although a number of important needs were identified, including planning time, student skill level, and training; many of these needs were linked to administrative support.

Co- Teaching in Inclusive Classrooms: A Metasynthesis - College of - ecreapnaren.tk

The dominant co-teaching role was found to be "one teach, one assist," in classrooms characterized by traditional instruction, even though this method is not highly recommended in the literature. The special education teacher was often observed to play a subordinate role. Techniques often recommendedfor special education teachers, such as peer mediation, strategy instruction, mnemonics, and training of study skills, self-advocacy skills, and self-monitoring, were infrequently observed.

Implemented to provide support for increasing the inclusion of students with disabilities, co-teaching usually consists of one general education teacher paired with one special education teacher in an inclusive classroom of general education and special education students e. Important components of tions are created, and the co-teachers provide successful co-teaching experiences identified from individual support at the different stations.

Weiss and Brigham take a smaller group of stiidents to a different also concluded that efficacy research was insuffilocation for a limited period of time for spe- cient. Their comprehensive search procesponsibilities equally and are equally involved dures yielded only six research reports three journal articles and three ERIC documents , which in leading instructional activities.

Co- Teaching in Inclusive Classrooms: A Metasynthesis of ... - NCIPP

They concluded C O - t EACH ING that available research yielded moderate effects, Previous reviews of co-teaching have summarized but that the overall data set was too small to draw accumulated literature and identified importarit firm conclusions. Friend and Reising provided an Dieker and Murawski discussed cooverview of the history of co-teaching. These au- teaching at the secondary level. They emphasized thors concluded that research was limited and the importance of teacher preparation, sufficient mostly anecdotal; however, available evidence sug- planning time, mastery of content by special edugested that teachers believed thai: co-teaching had cation teachers, and pointed to large class sizes a positive effect on student achievement and high-stakes testing as particular challenges to Welch, Brownell, and Sheridan pro- co-teaching success.

They recommended proacvided a broader review of team teaching and tive communication, varied instructional practices school-based problem-solving teaihs. This review e. They concluded that teachers re- fiexibility. She conevidence supporting co-teaching. She also reported that the secondary settings.

They reported that consider- role of the special education teacher was not alable variability was apparent in co-taught classes. Another important issue ior management, and monitoring student raised by Weiss was the limited amount of effiprogress; whereas the general education teacher cacy research. Exceptional Children A number of other articles made some reference to the research literature, but focused primarily on suggestions for teachers implementing co-teaching based on previous research and the authors' personal experiences.

Murawski and Dieker provided suggestions and strategies for co-teaching at the secondary level. They emphasized the importance of administrative support, establishing co-teacher roles, effective planning, shared classroom management, and appropriate assessment. Keefe, Moore, and Duff recommended that secondary co-teachers develop awareness of themselves, their co-teacher, their students, as well as relevant content and strategies.

They reported that research to date revealed that secondary teachers lacked training and skills and have more negative attitudes about coteaching. Gately and Gately focused on important components of the co-teaching relationship, including communication, content knowledge, planning, classroom management, and assessment.

Vaughn, Schumm, and Arguelles discussed common co-teaching issues, based on conversations with teachers. These issues included "ownership" of students, classroom management, space, communication, and planning time. Previous reviews and other relevant literature have generally concluded that efficacy research is limited. However, a number of variables of potential significance have been identified, including co-teacher compatibility, administrative supports, planning time, teacher training, and flexibility.

In addition to important questions of eflicacy, however, a number of other relevant questions can be asked about the practice of co-teaching. Investigations addressing these questions are typically qualitative in nature. Qualitative research is generally appropriate for describing and providing insights about attitudes, perceptions, interactions, classroom structure, and behaviors, relevant to co-teaching.

To date, a considerable amount of qualitative research has been conducted in the area of co-teaching. However, at present the research base consists mostly of individual investigations with little previous attempt to summarize or synthesize findings. This investigation, therefore, was intended to systematically summarize and integrate the findings of all available qualitative research reports into one integrative review. As such, it was intended to shed light on the practice of co-teaching from the perspectives of relevant research.

In order to do so, it was necessary to identify and implement appropriate techniques for synthesis of qualitative research. Since that time, literally thousands of meta-analytic investigations have been completed, and many of these have been applied to special education Forness, Qualitative research synthesis has been previously conducted, mostly in the health sciences Campbell et al. The appropriateness and merits of qualitative metasynthesis have been previously discussed in the literature see Sandelowski et al. It could be argued, in fact, that it is exactly this idiographic element that contrasts so sharply with quantitative studies, which offer general conclusions about the behavior or performance of groups, and are less relevant to individual cases.

Another concern is that summarization of research including the diversity of methodologies employed under the umbrella of "qualitative" research—including case studies, phenomenological studies, ethnographies, semi-structured interviews, and narratives—could trivialize differences among them and could be problematic in practice Sandelowski et al. These concerns, however, should also be weighed against the consequences of not summarizing qualitative research. Without developing the connectedness latent within and across qualitative research studies, this important body of research may exert only a limited impact on policy and practice.

Rather, the purpose is to integrate themes and insights gained from individual qualitative research into a higherorder synthesis that promotes broad understandings of the entire body of research, while still respecting the integrity of the individual reports. Several researchers have proposed and employed methods for systematically integrating qualitative research see Scruggs et al. For instance, Noblit and Hare described several ways qualitative research synthesis could be accomplished, including a "reciprocal translation," involving recursive reading and analysis, and comparison of metaphors used in different studies; b "refutational" meta-ethnography, investigating why researchers come to different conclusions, such as Freeman's refutation of Margaret Mead's Coming of Age in Samoa; and c "line-of-argument" synthesis, where studies are translated into one another, the result being a more parsimonious but encompassing understanding of the phenomenon being studied.

Noblit and Hate provided an example of such a synthesis using five studies on racial desegregation. Qualitative research synthesis in the health sciences, generally using the models of Noblit and Hate , have been reported by Beck , Campbell et al. In the field of education, Gersten and Baker conducted a "multi-vocal synthesis" of instructional techniques for English language learners. This synthesis incorporated many of the analytic principles discussed by Noblit and Hare and included intervention studies with experimental designs, descriptive studies of instructional practices, and an uncommon third source, input from professional work groups.

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In the present investigation, we determined to tteat each identified research report as an individual "informant," and create a metasynthesis across all individual research reports, using procedures familiar to qualitative researchers. That information is then integrated with the find39S ings of other researchers, in much the same way a qualitative researcher might use data from multiple informants to draw conclusions. Considering the complexity of synthesizing a large number of original research reports, each containing its own individual data sources, we employed NVivo software for entering text and other information, coding and categorizing qualitative data, and assisting with organization of qualitative data into general themes.

NVivo was thought to be particularly helpful in this investigation, because it allows a large amount of textual data to be stored and coded, and because it allows the researcher to reflect critically on the analysis as it unfolds, while storing individual insights that may be progressively refmed as more information is added see also Paterson et al.

Reports included in this investigation had been reported in journals, dissertations, and master's research reports. Dissertations and theses were included if they met quality standards employed in this synthesis, as discussed in a following section. Descriptors employed in the searches included coteaching, inclusion, mainstreaming, and cooperative teaching. We also employed wildcard versions as well as multiple versions of these terms, for example, include, inclusive, included, mainstream, co-teach, coteach.

An ancestry search of each reference list was also employed, in order to identify relevant research that had been cited by authors of identified research.


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A descendant search of cited research, using the Social Sciences Citation Index In the present investigation, we determined to treat each identified research report as an identified reports that had cited relevant research. Finally, a hand search of relevant journals any individual "informant," and create a journals devoted to special education practice, for metasynthesis across all individual research example.

Studies that were included for this synthesis employed qualitative research methods as a primary methodology, although studies were included if they also employed quantitative methods. Quantitative surveys of co-teachers in which some additional verbal responses were solicited through open-ended or direct questions were not included; however, substantive qualitative interviews conducted subsequent to a quantitative survey, and analyzed using qualitative methods, were included.

Studies that specifically focused on one We did not set any deliberate time limits in the search. Previous reviews and other relevant literature have generally concluded that efficacy research is limited. However, a number of variables of potential significance have been identified, including co-teacher compatibility, administrative supports, planning time, teacher training, and flexibility.

In addition to important questions of eflicacy, however, a number of other relevant questions can be asked about the practice of co-teaching. Investigations addressing these questions are typically qualitative in nature. Qualitative research is generally appropriate for describing and providing insights about attitudes, perceptions, interactions, classroom structure, and behaviors, relevant to co-teaching.

Co-Teaching in Inclusive Classrooms, Grades K-6, Part I: Whole Group Structures and Strategies

To date, a considerable amount of qualitative research has been conducted in the area of co-teaching. However, at present the research base consists mostly of individual investigations with little previous attempt to summarize or synthesize findings. This investigation, therefore, was intended to systematically summarize and integrate the findings of all available qualitative research reports into one integrative review. As such, it was intended to shed light on the practice of co-teaching from the perspectives of relevant research.

In order to do so, it was necessary to identify and implement appropriate techniques for synthesis of qualitative research. Since that time, literally thousands of meta-analytic investigations have been completed, and many of these have been applied to special education Forness, Qualitative research synthesis has been previously conducted, mostly in the health sciences Campbell et al. The appropriateness and merits of qualitative metasynthesis have been previously discussed in the literature see Sandelowski et al.

It could be argued, in fact, that it is exactly this idiographic element that contrasts so sharply with quantitative studies, which offer general conclusions about the behavior or performance of groups, and are less relevant to individual cases. Another concern is that summarization of research including the diversity of methodologies employed under the umbrella of "qualitative" research—including case studies, phenomenological studies, ethnographies, semi-structured interviews, and narratives—could trivialize differences among them and could be problematic in practice Sandelowski et al.

Co-Teaching in Inclusive Classrooms: A Metasynthesis of Qualitative Research.

These concerns, however, should also be weighed against the consequences of not summarizing qualitative research. Without developing the connectedness latent within and across qualitative research studies, this important body of research may exert only a limited impact on policy and practice. Rather, the purpose is to integrate themes and insights gained from individual qualitative research into a higherorder synthesis that promotes broad understandings of the entire body of research, while still respecting the integrity of the individual reports.

Several researchers have proposed and employed methods for systematically integrating qualitative research see Scruggs et al. For instance, Noblit and Hare described several ways qualitative research synthesis could be accomplished, including a "reciprocal translation," involving recursive reading and analysis, and comparison of metaphors used in different studies; b "refutational" meta-ethnography, investigating why researchers come to different conclusions, such as Freeman's refutation of Margaret Mead's Coming of Age in Samoa; and c "line-of-argument" synthesis, where studies are translated into one another, the result being a more parsimonious but encompassing understanding of the phenomenon being studied.

Noblit and Hate provided an example of such a synthesis using five studies on racial desegregation.