Introduction for cloning research paper

Instead, it provides an analysis focused on the scientific and medical aspects of human cloning. In this report, the panel responds to the following questions in our task statement:. What does cloning of animals including humans mean? What are its purposes? How does it differ from stem cell research? What is the state of science on cloning of animals? How does this science apply to cloning of people? To what extent can our knowledge of assisted reproductive technologies inform the debate on human cloning? What scientific and medical criteria should be used to evaluate the safety of cloning a person?

What issues of responsible conduct of research are raised by the prospect of cloning a person? What process should be used to evaluate future scientific and medical evidence regarding cloning a person?

Principles of Cloning

Based on the current scientific and medical evidence, should there be a moratorium on the cloning of a person? What are the implications of doing so? Of not doing so? If a moratorium is enacted, when should the issue be re-evaluated? In this report, we will be discussing the concepts of bans and moratoriums. In developing its responses to those questions, the panel see Appendix A gathered and studied a large bibliography of scientific, veterinary, and medical literature see Appendix B and held 12 weekly conference calls for discussion.


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Scientists who are now conducting research concerned with stem cells and those who plan to undertake reproductive cloning to create children also participated in the workshop. Chapter 2 provides a basic introduction to cloning and its relation to stem cell research. Chapter 3 is an overview of the state of the science of animal cloning and a summary of its possible application to humans.

Cloning Is The Cloning Of Cloning

Chapter 5 describes the plans of those who wish to clone humans and provides the current policy and regulatory context. Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature Feb 27, : Rockville, MD. Human reproductive cloning is an assisted reproductive technology that would be carried out with the goal of creating a newborn genetically identical to another human being. It is currently the subject of much debate around the world, involving a variety of ethical, religious, societal, scientific, and medical issues.

Scientific and Medical Aspects of Human Reproductive Cloning considers the scientific and medical sides of this issue, plus ethical issues that pertain to human-subjects research. Based on experience with reproductive cloning in animals, the report concludes that human reproductive cloning would be dangerous for the woman, fetus, and newborn, and is likely to fail. The study panel did not address the issue of whether human reproductive cloning, even if it were found to be medically safe, would be—or would not be—acceptable to individuals or society.


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  • Foundations of Molecular Cloning - Past, Present and Future | NEB.
  • The global governance of human cloning: the case of UNESCO | Palgrave Communications.

This procedure was performed in by American scientists Robert W. Briggs and Thomas J. King, who used DNA from embryonic cells of the frog Rana pipiens to generate cloned tadpoles. Gurdon was awarded a share of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for this breakthrough. Advancements in the field of molecular biology led to the development of techniques that allowed scientists to manipulate cells and to detect chemical markers that signal changes within cells. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology in the s, it became possible for scientists to create transgenic clones—clones with genomes containing pieces of DNA from other organisms.

Beginning in the s mammals such as sheep were cloned from early and partially differentiated embryonic cells. In British developmental biologist Ian Wilmut generated a cloned sheep, named Dolly , by means of nuclear transfer involving an enucleated embryo and a differentiated cell nucleus. This technique, which was later refined and became known as somatic cell nuclear transfer SCNT , represented an extraordinary advance in the science of cloning, because it resulted in the creation of a genetically identical clone of an already grown sheep.

It also indicated that it was possible for the DNA in differentiated somatic body cells to revert to an undifferentiated embryonic stage, thereby reestablishing pluripotency —the potential of an embryonic cell to grow into any one of the numerous different types of mature body cells that make up a complete organism. The realization that the DNA of somatic cells could be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state significantly impacted research into therapeutic cloning and the development of stem cell therapies. Soon after the generation of Dolly, a number of other animals were cloned by SCNT, including pigs , goats , rats , mice , dogs , horses , and mules.

Despite those successes, the birth of a viable SCNT primate clone would not come to fruition until , and scientists used other cloning processes in the meantime. Many came to believe that the implants were making them ill with diseases of their immune systems. With human cloning and its technology breast augmentation and other forms of cosmetic surgery could be done with implants that would not be any different from the person's normal tissues. In case defective genes, the average person carries 8 defective genes inside them. These defective genes allow people to become sick when they would otherwise remain healthy.

With human cloning and its technology it may be possible to ensure that we no longer suffer because of our defective genes. In case of Down's syndrome, those women at high risk for Down's syndrome can avoid that risk by cloning. In case of Tay-Sachs disease, this is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder could be prevented by using cloning to ensure that a child does not express the gene for the disorder Liver failure.

We may be able to clone livers for liver transplants Kidney failure. We may be able to clone kidneys for kidney transplants Leukaemia. We should be able to clone the bone marrow for children and adults suffering from leukaemia. This is expected to be one of the first benefits to come from cloning technology. In case of Cancer, we may learn how to switch cells on and off through cloning and thus be able to cure cancer. Scientists still do not know exactly how cells differentiate into specific kinds of tissue, nor do they understand why cancerous cells lose their differentiation.

Cloning, at long last, may be the key to understanding differentiation and cancer. In case of Cystic fibrosis, we may be able to produce effective genetic therapy against cystic fibrosis. Ian Wilmut and colleagues are already working on this problem.

Learn more about Cloning

In case of Spinal cord injury, we may learn to grow nerves or the spinal cord back again when they are injured. Quadriplegics might be able to get out of their wheelchairs and walk again. Christopher Reeves, the man who played Superman, might be able to walk again. In testing for genetic disease, Cloning technology can be used to test for and perhaps cure genetic diseases. The above mentioned benefits of cloning are the ones to be claimed by different scientists.

Cloning The First Human - Spark

Human Cloning is beneficial in many senses but what about the moral and ethical aspects. Well, these benefits may help build a healthy society and thus may build a morally sound society with a very less likelihood. The science and ethics are two very different concepts. As one is substantial in nature and the latter is related to human conscience. So, even though cloning has many benefits, we cannot conclude that it will be ethically beneficial.

Arguments against Human Cloning Ethical Concerns Regarding Human Cloning Compared to other technologies that might be used to address reproductive limitations and organ and tissue shortages, these potential harms of human cloning appear to outweigh the potential benefits at this time.

Cloning Fact Sheet | NHGRI

Physical harms introduced by cloning It is important to note that techniques used for cloning humans could potentially endanger the developing individuals. At present, this cannot be assured with any degree of certainty with human cloning.

Somatic cell nuclear transfer has not yet been refined and its long-term safety has not yet been proven. The possibility of genetic or cellular conditions, and perhaps an array of illnesses associated with cloning, is of great concern. While the demise of countless amphibian, lamb, and mouse foetuses may be disturbing, similar wastage and mortality among human foetuses is unacceptable.

Moreover, we might have significant concerns about offering such technology to women as a mechanism to facilitate reproduction given the potential harms from the expected high miscarriage rate. The risk of producing individuals with developmental anomalies is serious and precludes human cloning for the time being. Producing disabled human clones would give rise to an obligation to seek better understanding of— and potential medical therapies for— the unforeseen consequences that could arise from human cloning.

Psychosocial harms introduced by cloning Human cloning has the potential to introduce psychosocial harms to individuals. For the most part, environment will also play a significant role. Knowledge of genetic information holds great significance to an individual. If raised by the clone-parent, a clone-child could see what he or she has the potential to become. In this respect, human clones would differ dramatically from monozygotic twins who develop simultaneously.

The timing of development is a key difference between monozygotic twins and human clones. Presumably, a person would clone him or herself or another individual because that person has desirable characteristics that would be reflected in the clone. For example, the person who cloned a sports star presumably would hope that the clone-child develops into another sports star.