Thesis on salmonella typhi

The previous research has successfully discovered fim-C- S. The information of fim-C- S. The PCR result was the amplified 0. The specificity assay was conducted by comparing the amplicon in size of 0. The results indicated the fimbriae-C- S.

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However, they cannot differentiate S. Sensitivity assay was conducted by determining the detection level of fim-C- S.

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The sensitivity assay showed the detected fimbriae-C primers S. The clinical assay was evaluated by comparing the PCR product of suspected patient blood, the isolated bacteria S. Typhi combined with clinical data from a randomized controlled trial to investigate the impact of AMR and bacterial genotype on the disease outcome. A novel subclade of ciprofloxacin-resistant H58 S. Typhi associated with increased treatment failure was identified and these organisms were likely widespread in Indian subcontinent.

Subsequently, this study combined bacterial genomics with conventional epidemiological tools to reveal the population structure and spatiotemporal dynamics of S. Paratyphi A isolates in Nepal. The Nepalese S. Paratyphi A population was highly dynamic with evidences of regular inter-country transmission, clonal expansion and replacement of distinct genotypes during the study period. A number of localized spatiotemporal clusters of S.

Paratyphi A cases were also identified. A molecular epidemiological investigation was also performed to provide insights into the AMR, epidemiological features and population structure and dynamics of S. Typhi in rural areas of Siem Reap, Cambodia. Typhimurium from patients; this prompted us to include S. Typhimurium isolates in our study. Samples were collected after getting written informed consent from the subjects.

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Briefly, motile Gram-negative bacilli that were oxidase negative and catalase positive were subjected to preliminary identification in a VITEK 2 Compact bioMerieux, SA, France microbial identification system and manual biochemical reactions and subsequently confirmed using the slide agglutination test with Salmonella polyvalent O antiserum groups A—E and with type-specific S. Typhi O9 and H:d, S.

The phylogenetic and phenotypic analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden

Paratyphi A O2 and H:a, and S. Our repertoire of antisera only allowed for the identification of three serovars and isolates that were positive for Salmonella polyvalent O group A—E agglutination but gave no agglutination with type-specific antisera were reported as Salmonella species. Susceptibility to cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin and azithromycin was determined. During the study period, isolates of Salmonella were obtained. Of these, 79 were of S. Paratyphi A 22 The total number of Salmonella samples isolated was The majority , Moreover, 78 Typhi isolates were obtained from blood.

All isolates of S. Of the 12 isolates of S. Percentage susceptibility results of the S. Typhi isolates to antimicrobials was as follows: chloramphenicol Susceptibility pattern of the 22 isolates of S. Susceptibility was Percentage susceptibility of Salmonella enterica isolates August —July Data were available for 93 patients. THESIS ON SALMONELLA TYPHI

All of them excluding three patients recovered. One patient with typhoid fever was treated with azithromycin. Ten of the 12 patients in whom S. Typhimurium was detected had comorbidities with documented risk.

What is a Salmonella Infection? (Contaminated Food or Water)

Among these, two patients had typhoid fever and were in sepsis at admission. One patient grew S. Isolation of S. Typhi as the most common serotype is similar to the results from other Indian studies from Chennai, Shimla, Chandigarh and New Delhi. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A. Typhi were sensitive to ciprofloxacin.

Study on Salmonella Typhi-Isolation, characterization and immunological studies

The percentage of nalidixic acid-resistant S. Typhi isolated was Paratyphi A isolated was There have been many reports of multidrug-resistant MDR Salmonella resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim—sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol in the Indian subcontinent, but we did not isolate any MDR during our study. Our observation of reemergence of susceptibility to chloramphenicol is comparable with studies by other Indian workers. Of the 12 S. Typhimurium strains isolated during the study period, 4 were from stool and 8 from blood stream; moreover, 9 patients had 3 or more comorbidities.

Several comorbidities have been reported in patients with nontyphoidal salmonellosis, including malignancy, diabetes and treatment with immunotherapy agents. The lone urinary carrier of S. Typhi was a male with no history of enteric fever. He had bilateral renal calculi, obstructive uropathy, peripheral neuropathy and end-stage kidney disease. Typhi bacteriuria has been documented in patients with renal calculi and also in those with urinary tract abnormalities. One died a few hours after admission, and the other — despite intensive management and treatment with ceftriaxone — passed away within 48 hours of admission.

On administration of appropriate antibiotic therapy in a prompt manner, typhoid fever is a short-term febrile illness with about 6 days of hospitalization. The risk of mortality is 0. He was immunocompromised, suffering from multiple myeloma with renal failure and was on chemoradiation. The severity of nontyphoidal salmonellosis depends on host factors and the strain of Salmonella.