Another specific characteristic of the Islamic civilization is that it spread the spirit of justice, impartiality and tolerance among people. The result was that people of different beliefs and views lived together in safety, peace and mutual respect, and that mosques stood next to churches, monasteries and synagogues in the lands that were governed by Muslims.
This stems primarily from the commandments of the noble Islam according to which nobody must be forced to convert from their religion and beliefs since freedom of religion is guaranteed within the Islamic order.
Contributions of the Islamic Civilization essays
The Islamic civilization in Spain encompasses many fields that left a profound imprint in the Iberian Peninsula and Europe. The cultural climate of Spain in the era of Muslim rule brought about a prospering of different aspects of science and culture. Numerous schools and libraries were established and books were procured due to which the majority of the people were literate. Literature and art flourished. Buildings were constructed and Islamic art with its specific qualities was cultivated. As a result of that movement, Cordoba became the civilization capital of both Spain and the West in general.
Many schools were established in it, such as medical and technical schools in addition to the general education and other vocational schools. Hospitals, chemical plants and observatories were also built.
The university in Cordoba was a beacon of thought, education and culture, and it made Cordoba the home of science and of a great number of scholars and scientists in medicine, pharmacy, chemistry, astronomy, mathematics and botany. Scholarly disciplines such as philosophy and logic were also studied and busy translation activities were underway.
Wilfred Cantwell Smith Arkdn. We appoint for him that unto which he himself hath turned, and expose him unto hell — a hapless journey's end!
The election capitulation laid down by the cardinals at the time and agreed to by the pope called for the prosecution of a war against the Turks and the restoration of discipline in the Church by means of a General Council. Furthermore, the pope was not to make war against any of the powers without the consent of two-thirds of the cardinals. He was also expected It is strained, verbose, and tedious ; fulsome in its flattery, abusive in its censure.
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