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The essay must not have been previously published.
Please make sure that your submission does not contain any acknowledgement. If the working class is fearful of free trade programs, their concerns should be accounted for. Certainly, the recent populist elections and referendums throughout Europe paint an image of a base which rejected globalism and liberalism. Nonetheless, those who stand by the liberal agenda should not be concerned about the future of the international order.
Populism and, by association, nativism and protectionism, ebbs and flows, so the fundamental system of international relations is not in danger. The populist momentum behind Brexit is beginning to slow. Despite the political ascent of men like Donald Trump, support of globalism and free trade is bipartisan and wholly uncontroversial.
Most major employers in any country have significant financial interests abroad. Thus, the twenty-first century economy is inherently globalized. With international alliances such as the United Nations and North Atlantic Treaty Organization, as well as a plethora of international deals, nations in the modern world are intertwined. A few strongmen leaders cannot change that. In the case of Brexit, the United Kingdom remains interconnected politically with the other member states of the European Union.
Nearly a year after the referendum, there are hundreds of negotiations to complete before the UK is no longer an EU member. Existing frameworks, from international groups to checks and balances within a Constitution, provide a robust barrier to protectionism, isolationism, and nativism. In name and in practice, populism is a rejection of liberalism, elitism, and globalism.
The protectionist and nativist aspects of populism are short-lived and of relatively low impact. Yet, they are inevitable. She has worked with multiple legislators from across the state to support bipartisan legislation. The dropping of atomic bombs reflected the terrible and awesome capability of mass destruction, and these critical moments have shaped military strategy, public opinion, pop culture and of course foreign affairs from through the present day.
The nuclear timeline continues to run its course, but in this history intersected with another: the timeline of cyber warfare. In the Stuxnet cyber attack, the United States and Israel launched the first major offensive cyber action between state actors, a massive supervisory control and data acquisition SCADA attack on Iranian nuclear centrifuges.
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This cyber action yielded kinetic results, physically damaging Iranian nuclear facilities. Stuxnet comes at the intersection of the ongoing saga of nuclear proliferation and the new frontier of cyber warfare, a not-so-distant horizon silhouetted by cyber soldiers, codes, and keyboards. In the cyber era, the Stuxnet attacks demonstrate the similarly awesome destructive potential of cyber attacks.
SCADA attacks can, quite literally, turn off an electrical power grid, or disrupt the production of military supplies and weapons, or halt public transportation. State or non-state actors could use these capabilities to great effect in war or as tools of terror, and the Stuxnet attacks provide a blueprint for fighting in the cyber domain.
Furthermore, the Stuxnet attacks highlight three particularly worrisome aspects of the cyber era. First, these attacks were not easily attributed, and although they have now been attributed to Israel and the United States, future attacks may be similarly difficult to place at first. Attribution issues will continue to characterize the cyber world, and the Stuxnet episode demonstrates this concept.
Second, the Stuxnet attacks could have easily impacted targets not originally intended to be harmed, and distinguishing civilian and military targets on the Internet will continue to be problematic. Third, what is an appropriate response to a cyber attack? The Iranian government has, according to an Atlantic Council report , launched counter cyber attacks as a result of Stuxnet and drastically increased the Iranian cyber budget. Would sanctions or military action, for example, have been appropriate responses to being the target of a major cyber attack?
This question has yet to be resolved, and will persist in the cyber era. In , the global community was introduced to the nuclear weapon, a weapon of mass destruction that would inform the next fifty years of strategic thinking. In , a Belarusian security firm unmasked the next weapon to shape strategic thinking in the form of the Stuxnet cyber attack. The next fifty years of cyber attacks will be measured against the Stuxnet. Strategists and operatives will break new boundaries of cyber warfare as states look to bolster defenses against SCADA attacks.
As it did in the Cold War, pop culture will dream of the impact cyber weapons can have on civil society. We have witnessed the convergence of two critical timelines—the history of nuclear weapons and cyber weapons—and the Stuxnet attack will be remembered as a truly historic moment in the coming age of cyber warfare.
His interests include counterinsurgency, nuclear and chemical weapons proliferation, military strategy and the impact of cyber capabilities on these topics. Millennials around the world are utilizing social media and technology as a medium for political engagement instead of entering formal politics. We voice our opinions in Facebook statuses, post photos of ourselves at rallies to Instagram, call out leaders on Twitter, and watch protests unravel and reconstruct societies before our very eyes on Youtube.
Social media has become a forum for political discourse, a means for political engagement. Technology has transformed the way millennials participate in politics and furthermore, it has changed the way we shape policy. However, this is not signaled that millennials are politically inactive. Instead we are choosing to participate in a different way and in our own way. That is, Tunisian youth are politically engaged, yet they are increasingly eschewing formal politics voting, joining political parties, and running for office in favor of informal politics starting or joining a civil society organization, protesting, or signing a petition.
As of , only 5 members of Congress are millennials. If Congress were proportionate to generational divide, there would be a total of 97 members. This avoidance of formal politics in both Tunisia and the United States may be attributed to social media. Some researchers see the use of social networking sites as a form of participation and engagement in and of itself.
If this is the case, how will millennials continue to change policy if they are not in the vital decision- making positions to do so? As a consequence, there is a gap between those governing us and what we believe. However, technology has the ability to close this gap. In Tunisia, and more broadly throughout the Arab Spring of , technology, and more specifically Facebook, proved to be a powerful tool in grassroots organizing and created powerful networks of activists.
We saw images of young people mobilizing in the city centers, smartphones in hand, protesting authoritarian regimes in Egypt and Tunisia. Although the success of the revolution can be debated, there is no doubt that technology and youth activism were able to successfully bring awareness to the cause. Yet, there is still a widespread sense of disillusionment, certainly in Tunisia but in the United States as well. If millennials are feeling that political change is too far out of reach, its not. Technology makes us ever more connected, informed, and able. Platforms like Facebook and Twitter give us a seat at the table.
When every policy advisor, political pundit, even the President himself is on Twitter, the platform gives us a direct line - typed from our fingers to their ears. Technology has found a way to open the floor to people who may not have been able to voice their opinion before. For anyone who felt disillusioned with his or her government, technology and social media is a tangible way to have his or her voice heard.
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For youth, social media can act as a megaphone or a rallying cry; it can bring needed attention to injustices or mobilize a movement for change. Furthermore, technology is shaping politics and policy beyond social media.
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There are apps that let users swipe left or right, agree or disagree, through given policy proposals until they match with a candidate that best suits their policy preferences. In Iran, where popular social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter are banned, these apps allow users to circumvent censorship and get an accurate read on candidates without the propaganda of traditional media outlets.
This app helps constituents fine-tune their policy preferences. Millennials can use the technology as tool of empowerment, to help constituents better understand their options, and in turn make better policy choices that reflect their needs. Haley Silverstein received a B. Haley currently works with technology start-ups in New York City. The liberal international order created after World War II is going through inevitable changes.